Cardiac troponins are currently the most sensitive and specific biochemical markers of myocardial necrosis. There are three types of troponin in heart muscle fibers. Those are troponin-C, -I, and -T. Together they contribute to make cardiac muscle fibers contract.
Creatine Kinase (CK), also known as Creatine Phosphokinase or Phospho-creatine Kinase is an enzyme expressed by various tissues and cell types. Disruption of cell membranes due to hypoxia or other injury releases CK from the cellular cytosol into the systemic circulation.
D-dimer, a degradation product of cross-linked fibrin formed during activation of the coagulation system, is commonly used to exclude thromboembolic disease in outpatients suspected of having deep venous thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonaryembolism (PE).
NT-proBNP immunoassays are widely used and are now considered to be a useful marker and have a high degree of diagnostic accuracy in clinical practice and cardiovascular research as a diagnostic tool for the occurrence and severity of heart failure (HF).
Myoglobin is a promising cardiac marker when other markers such as Creatin Kinase Isoenzyme-MB (CK-MB) and Cardiac Troponin-I (cTn-I) as well as other indicators like clinical signs and ECG are taken into account for diagnosis/confirmation of AMI
American Heart Association (AHA) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) issued a statement regarding use of C reactive protein to assess risk of cardiovascular diseases.
Higher concentration of soluble ST2 is associated with increased myocardial fibrosis, adverse cardiac remodeling, andworse cardiovascular outcomes.