The elevated levels of PSA in male blood are known to be associated with some prostatic disorders such as prostatitis, benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) or prostate cancer.
A great increase of AFP concentration in several malignant diseases mostly is primary hepatocellular carcinoma and non-seminomatous testicular cancer. Some 70-90% of patients with primary hepatocellular carcinoma and non-seminomatous testicular cancer have been observed to have high levels of AFP.
Levels of CEA are significantly lower in colon tissue of adults, but can become elevated when inflammation or tumors’ arise in any endodermal tissue, including in the gastrointestinal tract, respiratory tract, pancreas and breast.
Colorectal cancer is the third most common cancer in the world, with about 1 million new cases and more than 500, 000 deaths per year. Screening method for colorectal cancer include the immuno chromatography fecal occult blood (iFOB) test, barium enema, sigmoidoscopy and colonoscopy.